It is of great significant to note that, exotic species are those life forms that are introduced into environments where they did not originate. On the other hand, invasive exotic species are life forms that are alien to a certain environment; and whose establishment lead to financial mischief or harm to human health. In this relation, alien species once introduced can hardly be eradicated as in their normal environments; these life forms developed established populations and multifaceted relationships with other species. In this case, when they are detached from their predators, parasites, diseases and challengers that have been reducing their population; species established into new environments more often than not elude their new home and crowd out indigenous species (Mitchell & Tully, 2008).
It is of importance to note that, human being are the ones associated with introduction of invasive exotic species like plants and animals in their adventure world wide. A good example of an invasive exotic species in Australia is the introduction of feral animals which have few natural killers or lethal diseases with others having high reproductive rates. According to the article written by the Australian government under the department of ‘Sustainability, Environment, Water Pollution and Communities’; these animals have impacted on the native animals by killing them, competing with them for food and shelter, destroying their environment, and by spreading diseases in Australia (Australian Government, 2010).
Implications of invasive exotic species to Australian government and communities
It is of importance to note that, invasive exotic species like the case of feral animals have caused a lot of negative implications to the Australian government and the entire community in areas where they are found. On the basis of feral animals, they have degraded vegetation that has been serving as a provider of food and shelter for them and other indigenous animals in Australia. In this relation, as the vegetation has been badly destroyed by these feral animals; the rabbit-eared bilby and other indigenous species have been placed under great pressure. Additionally, the feral cats and foxes hunt and kill indigenous birds, reptiles, mammals and insects hence placing these native species at the risk of extinction (Todd, 2002)
A point worth noting is that, degradation of vegetation on the earth surface causes soil erosion hence poor farm produce. In this connection, since it is easy to remove the domesticated animals from the degraded areas until the vegetation regenerate; it becomes very difficult to remove these feral animals for regeneration of vegetations. Additionally, most of the exotic species are capable of transmitting diseases than native species. A good example here is the feral animals in Australia which can carry the same diseases that affect domestic animals. In this relation, feral animals are latent carriers of diseases like rabies and foot and mouth as well as parasites like the screw fly worm (Green, 2006).
In Australia, the government has come up with a plan which is outlined in the ‘Environment Protection and biodiversity Conservation Act 1999′ under threat abatement plan (TAP). In this plan, the Australian government is planning to reduce competition and land degradation by feral rabbits. On this basis, this plan institutes a nationalized structure to guide and organize Australia’s reaction to the impacts of feral rabbits on biodiversity (Davies, 2005). Additionally, the Australian government has been preventing the spread of invasive exotic species like papaya fruit fly and red imported fire ant; through quarantine strategies which are mostly placed at the Northern Australia. In this connection, quarantine strategies have been placed in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya to prevent pests coming from Southeast Asia and Pacific countries (Davies, 2005). Further, the Australia government through legislative measures has conducted surveys, inspection, and destroying of infected materials in the effort of managing pest incursion. On the other hand, Australian communities in general have worked together in the elimination of harms caused by invasive exotic species. In this relation, biological, chemical, and mechanical control mechanisms have been used by the community members in the effort of warding off the exotic species. On this basis, community members have campaigned against the introduction of these species and have worked together with the use of the new technology to wipe off the new species (Carpenter, 2004).
Actions of the international community regarding the issue of invasive exotic species
As far as threats to biodiversity are concerned, invasive exotic species are ranked second in the destruction of environment such as soil erosion and forest clearing. As a result of this problem, international communities have acted in regard to this problem. In this respect therefore, the European Community (EC) has identified alien species as a problem causing biodiversity loss hence seriously damaging economy and health (McNeely, 2004). In this case, this body has come up with rules and regulation concerning this emerging issue of exotic species. Among these rules, people involved in wildlife trade and in rearing live animals and plants are expected by the law to be adequately careful on the species they have. This is done to prevent damage of the indigenous plants and animals from the introduction of the new species, and spreading of diseases from animals to humans. On the other hand, legalization of animal welfare, invasive species and human safety is present at global, European and national levels. The European Communities actions have been of grate use to many other global economies that have copied from them. On this basis, this organization has extended its actions to other developed and developing countries (McNeely, 2004).
Written By :Alice